graphic: MetaSelf Logo

The mind is
inherently embodied.

— Lakoff & Johnson

MetaSelf

Spatial Contrasts

Perceptual and Bodily Contrasts
Become Metaphors for Abstract Contrasts

Perceptual/Bodily Contrasts Abstract Contrasts
central / peripheral important / unimportant
center / side typical / less typical
near / distant intimate / estranged
near, close / far apart similar / dissimilar
supported from below / hanging from above independent / dependent
up / down
high / low
feeling good / feeling bad
facing toward / facing away courageous / fearful
clear / cloudy, opaque, not transparent easy to understand / difficult to understand
open / closed possible / impossible
fitting / not fitting suitable / not suitable
up / down
high / low
more / less (quantity and quality)
highest / lowest
top / bottom
best / worst (status, rank, social class)
rising / sinking increasing / decreasing
rising / falling achieving / failing
over- / under- too much / too little
above / below strong / weak
thumbs up / thumbs down approve / disapprove
upright / fallen righteous / degraded
balanced / unbalanced sane / insane
balanced / unbalanced fair, equal, just / unfair, unequal, unjust
stable / upset functioning well / emotionally vulnerable
in front, ahead / in back, behind future / past
foreground / background important and active / unimportant, dormant
front / back conscious / unconscious
forward / backward bold / bashful
outer / inner
outwardly / inwardly
apparently / essentially, truly, actually
outward / inward extravert / introvert